As I have posted recently (see here), I had the great opportunity to lead (perhaps “teach”) a continuing legal education seminar hosted by the National Business Institute (a.k.a. NBI, see here). The subject was “Family Law From A to Z” and I had opportunity to speak on two main topics in particular: Custody and Ethics. I was joined by four other capable attorneys who each had their own topics to present.
Although NBI published the materials, I retain the ownership of the portions I wrote, which I will post here in this blog.
Copied below are the materials I wrote for the section entitled “Termination of Parental Rights.”
The termination of a parent’s rights over his children nearly always occurs in one of two circumstances: voluntary adoption and dependency.
When termination is an issue, the court must appoint an attorney to represent the child when one or both parents contest the termination. Of course, the court is always free to appoint counsel and/or guardian ad litem for the child. A lawyer may not represent both the child and one of the parents. As far as the parents facing possible parental termination are concerned, the court may, upon petition, also appoint an attorney for one or both of them in the event he or she is unable to pay for an attorney.
There are times when parents are willing to voluntarily terminate their rights to their children, typically called relinquishment, say in the context of adoption. Another option, besides relinquishment, is signing a consent. A parent can sign a consent for their child to be adopted and not have to appear at future hearings. 23 Pa.C.S. § 2504. Upon receipt of a petition to relinquish parental rights, as mentioned above, a hearing will be scheduled, at least ten days from the filing of the petition, in order for the court to review and rule upon the petition. Relinquishment is under 23 Pa.C.S. § 2501-2502 and requires a hearing wherein a judge should make sure the parent understands the consequences of relinquishment and is fully aware of his right to trial. Usually there is a colloquy by the judge or by the parent’s attorney to establish their understanding.
It should be noted that if there is a putative father, which is to say a man who has not been formally legally established to be a child’s father, he may have his rights terminated if he had not filed an acknowledgment of paternity or a claim for paternity and fails to appear at the termination hearing.
Perhaps one of the most compassionate sections of the applicable law toward the parents subject termination is the fact that the court has the obligation to inquire into whether those parents have received counseling. If not, the court can refer him or her to a qualified counselor. In the alternative, a parent subject to termination may apply for a referral to counseling as well. To help facilitate counseling, the state has established a counseling fund pursuant to 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2505(e) to help those who are not in a financial position to afford counseling on their own.
Of course, termination of parental rights is a critical element of adoption and dependency. Termination in the context of adoption is pursuant to 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2511. In order to petition to terminate in this context, the parent must (1) evidence a “settled purpose of relinquishing [a] parental claim” over a child or fail to perform parental duties for a period of six (6) months immediately prior to filing to terminate; or, (2) demonstrate repeated abuse or neglect or continued incapacity; or, (3) the parent is the presumptive but not natural father of the child; or, (4) the child is in the custody of an agency and the parent is unknown (and does not claim the child within three months after being found); or, (5) the child has been removed from the care of the parent by court or voluntary agreement for a period of at least six months and the circumstances which led to the removal still persist with no reasonable expectation to improve; or, (6) a newborn child where the parent knows (or should know) of the child but takes no action to be a parent (e.g.: reside with the child or marry the other parent) for a four month period; or, (7) the parent is a father of a child conceived through rape; or, (8) the parent has been convicted of a serious crime (as listed in the statute); or, (9) the parent has committed sexual abuse or is a registered sex offender,
If a parent exhibits no sign of interest in the child over an extended period – typically about six months – he will be at risk of termination. The Court has made it clear that a child is not an “unwanted toy” for a parent to pick up and play with at his whim and set it down again when tired of it. Relatedly, being the fun and occasional playmate is not the same as being an involved parent. Additionally, parental involvement is more than merely paying support or paying for various expenses. A parent is more than a benefactor. Interestingly, absence due to incarceration does not necessarily provide sufficient grounds for termination. Of course, the six month interval is not mechanically applied. The Court is to fully analyze the underlying matter to determine why there has been such extended absence, and to view the totality of circumstances before ordering termination.
Those who may petition to terminate another person’s parental rights are limited to (1) either parent; (2) an agency; (3) the person who has custody and standing as in loco parentis and has filed a report of intention to adopt; and/or (4) a guardian ad litem of a dependent child.
The party seeking termination must prove by clear and convincing evidence that the parent’s conduct satisfies the grounds listed in 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2511. If the aforesaid evidentiary standard is met, then the court may consider whether the termination is for the best interests of the child. As with virtually any other issue regarding the custody or placement of children, the best interests of the child are paramount. The court is to give primary consideration to the developmental, physical, and/or emotional needs and welfare of the child. See 23 Pa.C.S.A. § 2511(b) The statute is clear that issues surrounding environmental factors will not be the sole basis of termination. Environmental factors include housing, furnishings, income, clothing, medical care, and the like if they are beyond the control of the parent. Finally, if a parent attempts to remedy the issues and conditions provoking the termination petition after the petition is filed, the court will likely not consider them. See 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2511(b)
After the filing of a petition for termination, a hearing is held with at least ten days’ notice to the parents, putative father, and parent of a minor parent who has not been terminated. Following termination, the terminated parent may not object to any adoption proceeding for the child. Terminated parents nearly always have the right to file updates of his or her personal medical history information after termination.
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2313
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2501
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2502
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2503
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2505
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2511
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2512
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2513
- 23 Pa.C.S.A. §2521
- In Re L.M., 923 A.2d 505 (Pa.Super. 2007)
- Baby Boy A. v. Catholic Social Services, 517 A.2d 1244 (Pa.1986)
- v. Arnold, 665 A.2d 836 (Pa.Super.1995)
- In re Burns, 474 P. 615 (1977)
- In re C.S., 761 A.2d 1197 (Pa.Super.2000)
- In re J.L.C., 837 A.2d 124 (Pa.Super.2003)
- In re T.F., 847 A.2d 738 (Pa.Super.2004)
- In re K.K.R.-S., K.M.R. & K.A.R., 958 A.2d 529 (Pa.Super.2008)